Sama or The Mawlawiya :
It is a Sufi ceremony performed as dhikr ’’ remembrance of God’’, ’These ritual was found in the thirteenth century inspired by the mystical poet Jalal-al-Din al Rumi.
The Sama is a whirling movement represents a mystical journey of man's spiritual ascent through mind and love to the stage of (Perfection)
The whirling is the basic principle of existenece where everything is going on in the universe. Rotating counterclockwise is a sign of freedom from constraints of time.
The dervish takes off his black cloak,which symbolizes the fetal body, and he is still wearing his white skirt ,which indicates the shroud, and the skirt is large and wide to indicate freedom and non-compliance. A wide belt shows his firmness,patince of hunger , and wears on his head a long brown hood which symbolizes the letter A. The first letter of the word God(ALLAH) and the brown color symbolizes the earth ( Ashes to ashes …. Dust to dust), he begins with a slow turn, then opens his hands like a wing and shakes upward in search of himself and the reason of his existence.
The whirling is with firming the left foot that rotates in the place with fast rotation and balanced rhythm.The fixed foot is Al Sharia and the moving foot is the whole life.
The right hand extends to the sky to seek the suppport assistence and the help of God (Madad) , and the left hand goes down to the earth to spread the (Madad) and ignore this life , and during the whirling overcomes his desires as it is said you( die before you will die).
The Tanoura Dance:
With de progress of time , the pressures of life and the development of the arts, Sufi dance was influenced through new invention of the Tanoura dance or the modern contemporary sufi dance.
The Tanoura dance is a similar to the sufi dance with the same rules but different by adding colors to the skirt and the varity of skirts that the dancer circulates.
Selected the black and white color for the Tanoura to express sadness,happiness and the lasting struggle between good and evil. In the Tanoura we find that the black color is predominant before the whirling, and when the whirling begins, starts the domination of the white color on the black one so this is the way and process of our life, when the earth stops going around, this means the end of the world and darkness will prevail everywhere, but when the earth going again round then the happiness defeats the sadness then will be goodness and peace everywhere.
In his choice of colors, it is symbolizes human colors from north to south, people of differnt colors and beliefs live on this earth and go around it with harmony, coexistence and love regardless of their religions,beliefs and colors. As for the three layers of the Tanoura is an indication of the layers of society rich and poor. The poor is often in lowest level than the rich who is on the top but that can change with the conditions and variables of time. We should always remember that all the people were born as a little vulnerable children then everyone goes to his destiny .
The poor can reach the top of his aims with his science,knowledge and hard working.